Egypt is the fifteenth most populous country in the world and its 78.8 million populations, as per the census held in 2006, live near the fertile banks of the river Nile, having an area of about 15,500 sq miles. The area is the only farming land found in the country, where agriculture is possible. The major part of the country forms a part of the Sahara Desert and is not much inhibited. The urban areas in the country is densely populated , with majority spread across greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major towns in the Nile Delta. Incidentally, Cairo is the largest city in Africa and the Middle East.
Egypt holds one of the richest evidence of ancient civilisation and some of the world’s ancient and famous monuments attract millions of tourists to the country. These monuments include the Giza Pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Giza. You will find a large number of ancient artifacts such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings, in the southern city of Luxor. In the present days, Egypt has come to be known as the main political and cultural centre of the Middle East. About 2,000 years back the ancient culture of Egypt started to decline and disappeared, and the last trace of the culture ceased to exist in the year 391 AD, when the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I closed all pagan temples throughout the Roman Empire. It was during the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon that Europe got to see the wonderful artifacts of the Egypt, when the long lost culture started to be awakened.
During the yearly flooding of the Nile, the water enriched the soil on the banks of the river that brought in good harvests and wealth to the land. The daily life in ancient Egypt revolved around this fertile land. The people of ancient Egypt built mud-brick homes for themselves in the villages of the country and grew some of their own food and traded the rest in the villages for food and other goods which they could not produce. Most of these people worked in the fields as farmers and many of them worked as craftsmen and scribes. A small handful of people were nobles and together, they formed the inhabitants of ancient Egypt.
The ruler of the ancient Egyptian Kingdom, in the pre-Christian and pre-Islamic period are is referred to as a Pharaoh. Such rulers were believed to be the re-incarnation of Horus, who is an ancient God of the ancient Egyptian religion, whose cult survived long enough for him to evolve and gain many names over time. The Pharaoh was the most powerful person in Egypt and was the political leader and religious head of the Egyptian people and held the name of ‘Lord of the Two Lands’. He was the head priest of every Temple in Egypt, and represented the Gods on Earth and would build the temples all over the country to honour the Gods. He would also perform rituals for the well being of his country. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt against foreigners.
At first, the word Pharaoh referred to the house where the King of Egypt resided and this translated to the ‘great house’. With time the king himself came to be known as the Pharaoh. The 먹튀검증 interesting point is that the King was never officially referred to by this name and the official designation of the King for ancient Egypt was ‘nesw-bit’, which combined the two dimensions of the King. While ‘nesw’ referred to the divine dimension that he had, ‘bit’ referred to the King as an individual that he is. As considered to be the son of God Osiris, as Horus, the Pharaoh was himself the divine being. He was considered to be an institution rather than an individual and was the protector of maat, the universal ethical principle. The consideration of the King to be an institution, changed with time.
At the time when pharaohs rules the Ancient Egypt, the people build Pyramids as tombs for theit Kings and their Queens, in which the pharaohs were buried. These pyramids came in various shapes and sizes and were built during the time from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom. Today we know 80 such existing pyramids, out of which, the three largest and best preserved pyramids have been found in Giza, with the well-known pyramid being that of the Pharaoh Khufu, known as the ‘Great Pyramid’.
This pyramid was built by pharaoh Khufu, an Egyptian King of the fourth dynasty, who existed around the year 2560 B.C. This he built to serve as his resting place after his death. It is said that this pyramid took 20 years to be built and there are modern theories as to how the construction proceeded.
The wonders of these pyramids have always stimulated the human interest, which they refer to as ‘The Mountains of Pharaoh’. When Napoleon invaded and conquered Egypt, he was supposed to have said that he can see 40 centuries from the top of the pyramid. Today the ‘Great Pyramid’ is enclosed, together with other pyramids along with the Sphinx. The famous ‘Sun Boat’ was discovered in 1954 and historians say that this was the boat which carried King Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. According to the ancient Egyptian beliefs, the boat could have been placed there to serve him as a means of transportation to life after death.
The ancient Egyptians believed that the temples were the places where God and Goddesses lived, and as such, every temple that was built at that time was dedicated to a God or Goddess, who were worshipped by the High Priest and the Pharaoh himself. Temples were built with stone, especially the large ones, which had the walls curved with paintings of scenes from that period. It also contained curved inscriptions of the ancient Egypt and has been a subject of interest to the Egyptologists and tourists. In those days, entry to these Temples was restricted and today, when you visit one of them, you could visualise the wonders of the civilisation that existed in that period.